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INCLUSIVE EDUCATION (Pendidikan Inklusif)

Overview

In this Chapter, we shall cover,

            • Concept of inclusive education

 

                        15. Difference between inclusive education and special education

                        16. Types of special children

 Key terms

            • Inclusive education

            • Types of special children

            • Special needs

 

Further Readings

Halvorson, A., Neary,T. (2001). Building inclusive schools. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kirk, S.A.,& Gallagher, J. J.(1979).Educating exceptional children. Boston: Hougton Mifflin.

Kennedy, E. (1997). Lessons and activities for the inclusive primary classroom. New York: The Centre For Applied Research In Education.

Lewis, R., Doorlag, D. (1995). Teaching special students in the main stream. Englewood: Prentice Hall.

Smith, J. ( 1985). New directions in remedial education. London: The Falmer Press.

 

Suggested Input

 

            1. Inclusive education means the inclusion of special children in the general education classroom. Students with physical impairment

         such as hearing and visual are integrated with their peers from the regular classroom. The particular class is guided by a

         resource teacher who collaborates with a class teacher. Individualized instructional materials and general class activities are

         prepared to help students with physical impairment. The Malaysian pilot project for inclusive education was started in 1994

         where 14 schools are involved.

 

            Pendidikan inklusif bermaksud penerimaan atau peluang pendidikan kepada kanak-kanak atau murid istimewa dalam kelas

    biasa atau norma. Murid yang kurang upaya seperti masalah pendengaran atau penglihatan di intergrasikan bersama rakan

    sebaya. Kelas tersebut akan dibantu bersama oleh guru sumber yang berkoloborasi dengan kelas biasa. Bahan pengajaran

    kendiri akan disediakan bersama pengajaran kelas biasa dan projek ini telah bermula pada tahun 1994 dengan 14 sekolah

    terlibat.

 

            2. Inclusive education emphasizes:

 

            • Cooperative learning among the special children and children from the regular class.

            • Inculcation of moral values among students.

            • Enhancement of interaction between special children and their peers.

            • Self-confidence and positive self-concept among the special children.

            • Collaboration between the special education and general education teacher.

            • Multiple intelligences across the curriculum.

            • Multilevel instruction.

            • Outcome orientation and authentic assessment.

            • Technology integration and problem based learning.

 

            Pendidikan inklusif memberi tumpuan terhadap:

 

            • pembelajaran kooperatif dikalangan murid istimewa dan murid biasa 

            • mengabungkan dan menerapkan nilai moral dikalangan murid

            • meningkatkan interaksi diantara murid istimewa dan rakan sebaya

            • menanam konsep keyakinan diri dan positif dikalangan murid istimewa

            • koloborasi diantara murid istimewa dengan guru pembimbing

            • merentasi kurikulum kecerdasan kepelbagaian

            • kepelbagaian pengajaran

            • pentaksiran autentik dan orientasi hasilan

            • penerapan integrasi teknologi dan permasalahan pembelajaran.

 

 

            3.   Special education is specially designed instruction to meet the individual needs of special students. According to Kirk and Gallagher (1979), special education is “those additional services, over and above the regular school program, that are provided for exceptional children to assist in the development of their potentialities and/ or amelioration of their disabilities”. (p.22).

 

Special educators serve students identified as having disabilities: students with learning disabilities, behavioral disorder and emotional disturbances, mental retardation, speech and language disorders, autism, physical and health disorders, traumatic brain injury, and vision and hearing disorders. However, special education services are also provided for gifted and talented students.

 

                Pendidikan Khas adalah pengajaran khas bertujuan untuk memenuhi keperluan individu murid istimewa. Menurut Kirk dan Gallagher (1979), pendidikan khas adalah “perkhidmatan tambahan, terhadap dan keatas program biasa persekolahan, yang diberikan kepada kanak-kanak tertentu bagi membantu pengembangan potensi atau kekurangan mereka”. (p.22).

 

Pendidikan terlatih dan berkelayakan dikenalpasti untuk membantu murid yang dikelasifikasikan sebagai mempunyai 

kekurangan: murid yang menghadapi masalah pembelajaran; tingkahlaku bermasalah atau emosi terganggu, kecacatan   

minda, masalah bertutur, autisma, masalah kesihatan dan fizikal, kecederaan otak traumatik, masalah penglihatan dan

pendengaran. Namun, perkhidmatan pendidikan khas juga diberikan kepada murid yang berbakat dan pintar dan cerdas.

 

 

 

            4. The difference between inclusive education and special education are as follow:

 

           Perbezaan diantara pendidikan inklusif dan pendidikan khas adalah seperti berikut:

 

 

             

 

 

            5. Children with special needs:

             

            1. Mentally retarded

            2. Learning disabilities

            3. Behavioral disorders

            4. Auditory and communication problems

            5. Visual problems

            6. Spastics

            7. Giftedness

             

            Kanak-kanak yang memerlukan pendidikan khas:

             

            1. terencat akal

            2. masalah pembelajaran

            3. tingkahlaku bermasalah

            4. masalah pedengaran dan komunikasi

            5. masalah penglihatan

            6. kanak-kanak spastik

            7. kebolehan istimewa

 

 

            6. Characteristics of children with special needs:

          Ciri-ciri kanak-kanak keperluan khas:

 

                 a) mentally retarded

            • general aptitude for learning is impaired

            • intellectual performance is significantly sub-average compare to their peers

            • display more problem behaviors than their peers

            • may not be socially accepted by their peers because lacking social skills

            • deficient in motor skills

 

                 a) terencat akal

            • kebolehan am terhadap belajar agak terjejas

            • persembahan intelek adalah signifikan dibawah tahap sederhana berbanding rakan sebaya

            • menunjukkan masalah sikap dan tingkah laku

            • tidak diterima oleh rakan sebaya kerana kurang berkupayaan bersosial 

            • kurang upaya didalam kemahiran fizikal

             

b) learning disabilities

            • have difficulty receiving information because of attention or perception problems

            • have difficulty in communication because of expressive language problems

            • performance in school is far below average

            • have difficulty in paying attention

            • have motor coordination problems

 

b) masalah pembelajaran

            • menghadapi masalah dalam menerima maklumat kerana masalah memberi perhatian dan memahami masalah

            • menghadapi masalah dalam berkomunikasi kerana sukar memberi penekanan atau makna

            • pencapaian disekolah dibawah tahap sederhana

            • menghadapi masalah memberi perhatian

            • menghadapi masalah mengkordinasikan kemahiran fizikal

 

c) auditory and communication problems

            • have difficulty in learning and pronouncing words

            • have difficulty in communication because of hearing impairment

            • show an overall delay in language development

            • always seen stressful in interpersonal communication

 

c) masalah pendengaran dan komunkasi

            • menghadapi masalah dalam memahami dan menyebut patah perkataan

            • menghadapi masalah dalam berkomunikasi yang disebabkan oleh masalah pendengaran

            • menunjukkan masalah dalam pembangunan pertuturan

            • kelihatan bermasalah dalam hubungan rakan sebaya

 

 

d) visual problems

            • have difficulty in reading writing or illustration from the blackboard

            • need to be taught basic orientation and mobility skill so as to move about in school

            • need encouragement to interact with sighted peers

            • tend to read from a very closed distance.

 

d) masalah penglihatann

            • menghadapi maslah dalam membaca dan menulis atau sukar memahami penerangan di papan putih 

            • memerlukan bimbingan dan panduan untuk bergerak dipersekitaran 

            • memerlukan galakan untuk berinteraksi dengan rakan sebaya peers

            • kelihatan membaca pada jarak yang terlalu dekat

 

             e) spastics

            • have difficulty in motor coordination

            • physical activities are restricted

            • instructional materials are adapted for their needs

 

            e) spastik

            • mengahdapi masalah dalam kordinasi pergerakan

            • aktiviti fizikal terhad

            • memerlukan bahan pengajaran bersesuaian dengan keperluan 

 

 

                f) giftedness

            • above average performance on measures of intellectual performance

            • have special talents in art or music or academic achievement

            • have creative ability

            • have excellent social skill

 

               f) cerdas

            • pencapaian melebihi tahap sederhana pencapaian intelek

            • mempunyai bakat istimewa dalam lukisan (sastera) atau muzik atau pencapaian akademik 

            • mempunyai kebolehan kreatif

            • mempunyai kemahiran sosial yang hebat

 

 

            7. Resource and classroom teacher play an important role in inclusive education. They work hand in hand through collaborative and cooperative teaching. For instance, the planning of strategies and preparation of instructional  materials. The evaluation has to be carried out by resource teacher in line with the needs of special children.

 

            Guru kelas dan sumber memainkan peranan penting dalam pendidikan inklusif. Mereka mestilah bekerjasama rapat dan erat

    bagi memastikan pembelajaran berkesan melalui kaedah koloborasi dan koperatif. Sebagai contoh, merancang penyediaan

    dan strategi bahan pengajaran. Penilaian harus di laksanakan oleh guru sumber berdasarkan keperluan murid keperluan khas.

 

 

            8. Factors that influence the effectiveness of inclusive education in the normal classroom can be classified as below:

 

            • The commitment of classroom and resource teacher.

            • The allocation of experienced classroom and resource teacher.

            • Cooperation from the parents and teachers in school.

            • Full support from the school principal.

            • The availability of instructional materials and facilities in school.

            • Enrolment in each class should not more than 30.

            • Incentives should be given to classroom and resource teachers who are involved in the program.

            • Counseling service is provided for special children.

 

            Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesan pendidikan inklusif didalam kelas norma boleh dikelasifikasikan dibawah:

 

            • Tahap komitmen guru sumber dan guru kelas

            • Peruntukan guru sumber dan guru kelas yang berpengalaman

            • Kerjasama dari ibubapa dan guru di sekolah

            • Sokongan penuh guru besar

            • Kemudahan bahan pengajaran dan fasiliti sekolah

            • Bilangan murid di dalam bilik darjah tidak melebihi 30 orang

            • Insentif hendaklah diberi kepada guru sumber dan kelas yang terlibat didalam program

            • Perkhidmatan kaunseling hendaklah disediakan kepada murid pendidikan khas

 

 

 

 

Other Reference :

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  3. http://aacaan.bravehost.com
  4. Kalender Rujukan 
  5. http://360.yahoo.com/kheru2006
  6. http://360.yahoo.com/bakorlambok
 
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Page Created 1 Mac 2006 and last updated on 03 Oct 2010 by Pengendali@ 2006